Continuous glucose monitoring in normal mice and mice with prediabetes and diabetes

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2006 Jun;8(3):402-12. doi: 10.1089/dia.2006.8.402.


It is well established that the key to minimizing diabetes-associated complications, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, is tight regulation of blood glucose levels. Currently the major approach to regulating blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes relies on external blood glucose monitors. However, poor patient compliance usually results in limited insights into the dynamic range of blood glucose levels (i.e., hyperglycemia vs. hypoglycemia), and inadequate prediction and control of blood glucose levels in these patients. Implantable glucose sensors hold promise for controlling blood glucose levels, but currently these sensors have only limited in vivo life span. Recently we have developed an extremely robust murine model for implantable glucose sensors. In the present study, we have extended this model by developing a complete system for real-time continuous glucose monitoring in normal mice and mice with prediabetes and diabetes (type 1). These studies demonstrated that (1) glucose sensors can be implanted and maintained subcutaneously in the mice; (2) continuous glucose sensor data can be obtained for at least 5 days; and (3) subcutaneous blood glucose sensing paralleled blood glucose levels in normal mice and mice with prediabetes and diabetes. Subcutaneous blood glucose sensing also successfully tracked changes in blood glucose levels induced in the mice with diabetes by administration of oral glucose or insulin. These results mirror the results for subcutaneous blood glucose sensing seen in both normal subjects and patients with diabetes, and therefore validate both our continuous glucose monitoring system in the mouse, and the use of the mouse as a model for implantable glucose sensing in vivo.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Equipment Design
  • Female
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Inbred NOD
  • Monitoring, Ambulatory / instrumentation
  • Monitoring, Ambulatory / methods*
  • Prediabetic State / blood*
  • Reference Values


  • Blood Glucose