Objective: To determine if the likelihood of preterm delivery is more dependent on the specific organisms present in the vagina than on the presence of bacterial vaginosis.
Methods: We evaluated the vaginal fluid of a prospective cohort of women at 23-32 weeks of gestation with signs and symptoms of preterm labor and intact membranes. Forward stepwise logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between preterm delivery and the presence of anaerobic bacteria, Gardnerella, ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas, and sialidase.
Results: The cohort included 137 women, and complete delivery information was available for 134 of them. The rate of preterm delivery was 28% (37 of 134). Mycoplasma genitalium independently was associated with spontaneous preterm delivery (OR 3.48; 95% CI 1.41, 8.57). After controlling for this factor, none of the other variables were significantly prognostic for spontaneous preterm delivery (residual overall p = 0.19).
Conclusion: The presence of Mycoplasma genitalium in the vagina of pregnant women is an independent risk factor for spontaneous preterm delivery.