Objective: We studied the association between weight maintenance, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and other lipoproteins in obese men.
Methods: A 2-month weight reduction phase (WRP) with a very-low-energy diet was followed by a 6-month weight maintenance period and an unsupervised 2-year follow-up. Ninety men entered and 68 (76%) completed the study. Subjects were analyzed as one group and after division into two subgroups: 20 most successful men in maintaining the lost weight (subgroup 1) and the remaining (n=48) men (subgroup 2). Ox-LDL was measured by quantifying the amount of conjugated dienes in LDL particles.
Results: The mean (+/-s.d.) weight reduction at the end of the WRP (n=68) was 14% (confidence interval (CI) 12.9-14.7%, 14.5+/-4.2 kg, P<0.001). Ox-LDL decreased by 22% (CI 16.9-28.1, 12.3+/-15.4 micromol/l, P<0.001). At the end of the 2-year follow-up, the regain in weight from the end of the WRP was 11% (CI 9.0-12.4, 9.6+/-6.2 kg, P<0.001). The regain in ox-LDL was 30% (CI 18.7-41.2, 8.2+/-15.4 micromol/l, P<0.001). In subgroup 1 vs 2, the respective regains were 3% (CI 0.9-4.2, 2.2+/-3.0 kg, P=0.006) vs 14% (CI 12.7-15.6, 12.9+/-4.0 kg, P<0.001) regarding weight and 9% (2.0+/-6.9 micromol/l, P=NS) vs 39% (CI 23.7-53.9, 11.2+/-17.2 micromol/l, P</=0.001) in ox-LDL.
Conclusion: The favorable changes seen in ox-LDL particles and serum lipids during weight reduction could be maintained by keeping the weight reduced, which may indicate decreased risk of atherosclerosis. But weight regain causes a resurge of ox-LDL.