This study was designed to test whether Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation has neuroprotective effect in aged, double-transgenic amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1), single transgenic APP and PS1 mice exposed to ischemic injury of the brain. Forty-eight mice (12 each of APP/PS1, APP, PS1 and wild-type) were studied. Half of each genotype groups (n=6 per group) was treated with CoQ10 (1200 mg/kg/day) after ischemic injury and the other half with placebo. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were used to measure the volume of induced infarction (IFV), as well as the volume of the hemispheres and hippocampi. Significantly greater volumes of infarction and lesser volumes of hemisphere/hippocampus on the ischemic side were observed in APP/PS1 and APP mice than in PS1 and wild-type mice. This is consistent with amplification of the effect of ischemia in APP carriers. After 28 days of CoQ10 treatment, APP/PS1 or APP mutations have smaller infarct volumes, while the volumes of hemisphere and hippocampus on the infarcted side were larger than those treated with placebo. No differences between CoQ10- and placebo-treated groups in volumes of infarct, hemisphere and hippocampus were observed in PS1 and wild-type mice. We conclude that CoQ10 has a protective effect on the brain from infarction and atrophy induced by ischemic injury in aged and susceptible transgenic mice.