Protein phosphorylation is crucial in the regulation of signaling pathways that control various biological responses. Recent progress in diverse methodologies to investigate protein phosphorylation in complex biological samples has resulted in more rapid, detailed and quantitative analyses of signaling networks. In particular, advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have enabled the identification and quantification of thousands of both known and novel phosphorylation sites. Initial MS-based information can be complemented with a variety of recently developed and improved phosphoproteomic techniques. These include multiplexed microbead or kinase activity assays, flow cytometry based single-cell analysis, protein microarrays and interaction studies. The combination of multiple approaches, coupled with phenotypic response measurements, computational modeling and biochemical manipulations, will ultimately reveal the mechanistic regulation of signaling networks.