Plasma Platelet-activating-Factor (PAF)-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH also named lipoprotein-PLA(2) or PLA(2)G7 gene) is secreted by macrophages, it degrades PAF and oxidation products of phosphatidylcholine produced upon LDL oxidation and/or oxidative stress, and thus is considered as a potentially anti-inflammatory enzyme. Cloning of PAF-AH has sustained tremendous promises towards the use of PAF-AH recombinant protein in clinical situations. The reason for that stems from the numerous animal models of inflammation, atherosclerosis or sepsis, where raising the levels of circulating PAF-AH either through recombinant protein infusion or through the adenoviral gene transfer showed to be beneficial. Unfortunately, neither in human asthma nor in sepsis the recombinant PAF-AH showed sufficient efficacy. One of the most challenging questions nowadays is as to whether PAF-AH is pro- or anti-atherogenic in humans, as PAF-AH may possess a dual pro- and anti-inflammatory role, depending on the concentration and the availability of potential substrates. It is equally possible that the plasma level of PAF-AH is a diagnostic marker of ongoing atherosclerosis.