Two major histocompatibility complex (MHC) ancestral haplotypes (AH) HLA A24, Bw52, C2C, BfS, C4A3+2, C4BQO, DRw15, DQw6 (52.1) and HLA A24, Cw7, B7, C2C, BfS, C4A3+3, C4B1, DR1, DQw5 (7.2), which occur with the haplotype frequencies of approximately 10% and 4% respectively in the Japanese population, carry duplicated C4A alleles by C4 allotyping. Southern blot analysis with Taq I indicated that the 52.1 AH has two C4 genes defined by 7.0 kilobase (kb) and 6.0 kb C4 hybridizing fragments but both encode C4A allotypes, being C4A3 and C4A2 respectively. The 7.2 AH carries two C4A3 and one C4B1 alleles and restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with Taq I showed that 6.0 kb and 7.0 kb fragments are in the proportion of 2:1. By pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, the lengths of the Pvul fragments carrying C4 and Cyp21 genes were approximately 390 kb for 52.1 and 440 kb to 7.2. The results indicate that the RFLP markers do not correlate with C4 isotype (A or B) or allotype and that the C4 gene copy number is a function of the number of genomic blocks containing C4 and Cyp21.