Predictors of quitting among African American light smokers enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

J Gen Intern Med. 2006 Jun;21(6):590-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00404.x.


Objective: To examine the predictors of quitting among African American (AA) light smokers (<10 cigarettes per day) enrolled in a smoking cessation trial.

Methods: Baseline variables were analyzed as potential predictors from a 2 x 2 cessation trial in which participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: nicotine gum plus health education (HE) counseling, nicotine gum plus motivational interviewing (MI) counseling, placebo gum plus HE counseling, or placebo gum plus MI counseling. Chi-square tests, 2 sample t-tests, and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of cotinine (COT) verified abstinence at month 6.

Results: In the final regression model, HE rather than MI counseling (odds ratio [OR]=2.26%, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.36 to 3.74), older age (OR=1.03%, 95% CI=1.01 to 1.06), and higher body mass index (OR=1.04%, 95% CI=1.01 to 1.07) significantly increased the likelihood of quitting, while female gender (OR=0.46%, 95% CI=0.28 to 0.76),</=$1,800/month income (OR=0.60%, 95% CI=0.37 to 0.97), higher baseline COT (OR=0.948%, 95% CI=0.946 to 0.950), and not completing all counseling sessions (OR=0.48%, 95% CI=0.27 to 0.84) reduced the odds of quitting.

Conclusions: Individual characteristics may decrease the likelihood of quitting; however, the provision of directive, advice-oriented counseling focused on the addictive nature of nicotine, health consequences of smoking, benefits of quitting, and development of a concrete quit plan may be an important and effective facilitator of quitting among AA light smokers.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • African Continental Ancestry Group*
  • Chewing Gum
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nicotine / therapeutic use*
  • Placebos
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Regression Analysis
  • Smoking Cessation / psychology*
  • Social Support
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Stress, Psychological
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States


  • Chewing Gum
  • Placebos
  • Nicotine