The primary aims of this exploratory pilot study were (1) to determine the proportion of a sample of HIV-positive inmates utilizing primary care after recent release, and (2) to identify variables associated with utilization of primary care at the time of a post-release interview. Sixty HIV-positive, male and female state prison inmates were interviewed approximately three months prior to release, and 30 were interviewed again between seven and 21 days after release. Variables associated with having utilized primary care at the time of a post-release interview (chi(2) p-values < 0.20) included: taking anti-HIV medications at the time of release, no alcohol use since release, living in the same place as before incarceration and rating of housing situation as 'comfortable' or 'very comfortable'. For exploratory purposes, these variables were entered into a logistic regression model. The model correctly classified 80% of cases overall. Future studies are required to ascertain whether these results would obtain with a statistically adequate sample size.