This study investigated the effect of single-dose and steady-state lopinavir/ritonavir on the exposure to fexofenadine, as a measure of P-glycoprotein activity. Sixteen volunteers (8 women) received single-dose oral fexofenadine 120 mg alone, in combination with single-dose ritonavir 100 mg or lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg (randomized 1:1, stratified by sex), and in combination with steady-state lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily. Single-dose ritonavir and lopinavir/ritonavir increased the area under the fexofenadine plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity (AUC(infinity)) by 2.2- and 4.0-fold, respectively (P < .02). Steady-state lopinavir/ritonavir increased the fexofenadine AUC(infinity) by 2.9-fold. No changes were observed in the fexofenadine elimination half-life (P > .12). The fexofenadine AUC(infinity) was increased by lopinavir/ritonavir, likely due to increased bioavailability secondary to P-glycoprotein inhibition. After repeated administration of lopinavir/ritonavir, the interaction was attenuated compared to the single-dose effect, although a net inhibitory effect was maintained. Time-dependent inhibition of P-glycoprotein by lopinavir/ritonavir should be considered when P-glycoprotein substrates are coadministered.