RNA-protein interactions are important in many biological contexts. Identification of the networks that connect regulatory proteins to one another and to the mRNAs they control is a critical need. Here, we use a yeast three-hybrid screening approach to identify RNAs that bind a known RNA regulatory protein, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PUF protein, Mpt5p. The assay selects RNAs that bind in vivo using simple phenotypes and reporter genes. It enables rapid analyses of the affinity and specificity of the interaction. We show that the method identifies mRNAs that are genuinely regulated by the protein in vivo, and that it complements biochemical strategies, yielding a set of mRNAs that overlap with, but are distinct from, those obtained by biochemical means. The approach we describe facilitates construction of protein-RNA linkage maps.