The DRiP hypothesis decennial: support, controversy, refinement and extension

Trends Immunol. 2006 Aug;27(8):368-73. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2006 Jul 11.


In 1996, to explain the rapid presentation of viral proteins to CD8+ T cells, it was proposed that peptides presented by MHC class I molecules derive from defective ribosomal products (DRiPs), presumed to be polypeptides arising from in-frame translation that fail to achieve native structure owing to inevitable imperfections in transcription, translation, post-translational modifications or protein folding. Here, we consider findings that address the DRiP hypothesis, and extend the hypothesis by proposing that cells possess specialized machinery, possibly in the form of "immunoribosomes", to couple protein synthesis to antigen presentation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigen Presentation
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / genetics
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological
  • Ribosomal Proteins / genetics
  • Ribosomal Proteins / immunology*
  • Ribosomes / genetics*
  • Ribosomes / immunology*
  • Ribosomes / metabolism
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology


  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
  • Ribosomal Proteins