Objective: To determine the efficacy of a modified-live virus vaccine containing bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), parainfluenza virus 3, and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 to induce neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immunity in naïve cattle and protect against BHV-1 challenge.
Animals: 17 calves.
Procedures: 8 calves were mock-vaccinated with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control calves), and 9 calves were vaccinated at 15 to 16 weeks of age. All calves were challenged with BHV-1 25 weeks after vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responsiveness were tested on the day of vaccination and periodically after vaccination and BHV-1 challenge. Specific T-cell responses were evaluated by comparing CD25 upregulation and intracellular interferon-gamma expression by 5-color flow cytometry. Titration of BHV-1 in nasal secretions was performed daily after challenge. Results-Vaccinated calves seroconverted by week 4 after vaccination. Antigen-specific cell-mediated immune responses, by CD25 expression index, were significantly higher in vaccinated calves than control calves. Compared with control calves, antigen-specific interferon-gamma expression was significantly higher in calves during weeks 4 to 8 after vaccination, declining by week 24. After BHV-1 challenge, both neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses of vaccinated calves had anamnestic responses to BHV-1. Vaccinated calves shed virus in nasal secretions at significantly lower titers for a shorter period and had significantly lower rectal temperatures than control calves.
Conclusion and clinical relevance: A single dose of vaccine effectively induced humoral and cellular immune responses against BHV-1, BRSV, and BVDV types 1 and 2 and protected calves after BHV-1 challenge for 6 months after vaccination.