1. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was investigated in five normal kidneys and 47 renal biopsies with the use of monoclonal antibody 7F7 and immunoperoxidase staining. 2. In the normal kidney, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was expressed on endothelial cells of glomerular and peritubular capillaries, on Bowman's capsule, on some interstitial cells and weakly in the mesangium. 3. Increased glomerular staining was detected in early cases of rapidly progressing glomerulonephritis (5/8) and in some cases of non-IgA mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (5/9), IgA nephropathy (3/5), Henoch-Schoenlein purpura (2/2), lupus nephritis (5/6) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (1/3). A decrease in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression was noted in advanced rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (3/8), two cases of membraneous nephropathy, one severe mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis biopsy, the two membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis biopsies and in sclerotic loops in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. 4. Expression de novo on tubular epithelial cells occurred in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, in membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and to a lesser extent in some cases of membraneous nephropathy, minimal change disease, IgA nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, a severe case of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis and in the mixed essential cryoglobulinaemia case. In 63% of positive tubuli, intraluminal cells which expressed CD18, the common beta-chain of leucocyte-function-associated antigen-1, Mac-1 and p150,95, were present. 5. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was also found on the majority (59%) of infiltrating mononuclear cells in all forms of glomerulonephritis.