Clinical Outcomes in Metabolic Syndrome

J Cardiovasc Nurs. Jul-Aug 2006;21(4):298-305. doi: 10.1097/00005082-200607000-00011.


Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors. Its definition is the presence of any 3 of the following: obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein, hypertension, and impaired fasting glucose. The development of coronary artery disease is the most dreaded complication of this disease. In the United States, Mexican Americans and African American women are the most affected. Management of this syndrome includes physical exercise, weight loss, and effective drug treatment of dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and impaired fasting blood glucose. Because of the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes, there is a rise in fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. With the development of effective antiplatelet medication and newer drug-eluting stents, percutaneous coronary intervention has become an effective revascularization strategy for those with coronary artery disease. Rates of stent restenosis and target-lesion revascularization have been reduced. Oral hypoglycemic drugs like thiazolidinediones improve insulin resistance and may have a favorable effect in those with metabolic syndrome. Diagnosis and appropriate management of metabolic syndrome are challenges as the presence of risk factors predates the coronary event.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • C-Reactive Protein / analysis
  • Cannabinoids / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / physiopathology
  • Dyslipidemias / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Hyperinsulinism / epidemiology
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Insulin Resistance / physiology
  • Interleukin-6 / blood
  • Liver / physiology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / therapy*
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • PPAR gamma / metabolism
  • Piperidines / therapeutic use
  • Pyrazoles / therapeutic use
  • Rimonabant
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Cannabinoids
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Interleukin-6
  • PPAR gamma
  • Piperidines
  • Pyrazoles
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Rimonabant