Pure soluble, recombinant and synthetic antigens, despite their better tolerability, are unfortunately often much less immunogenic than live or killed whole organism vaccines. Thus, the move towards the development of safer subunit vaccines has created a major need for more potent adjuvants. In particular, there is an urgent need for adjuvants capable of boosting cellular (Th1) immunity but without unacceptable toxicity. The adjuvant activity of aluminium compounds (aluminium phosphate or hydroxide) was first described by Glenny and colleagues in 1926. Surprisingly, despite the description of over one hundred adjuvants in the scientific literature, alum remains the only adjuvant approved for human use in the USA. Unfortunately, alum has no effect on cellular immunity and is faced with increasing concerns regarding potential for cumulative aluminium toxicity. Why then has alum not been replaced in human vaccines? Despite the enormous number of candidates, potency has invariably been associated with increased toxicity, and this more than anything else has precluded their use, particularly in prophylactic vaccines where safety issues are paramount. Hence, there is a major unmet need for a safe efficacious adjuvant capable of boosting cellular plus humoral immunity. The extensive data on inulin-based adjuvants indicate that these are excellent candidates to replace alum as the adjuvant of choice for many vaccines. Particular advantages offered by inulin-based adjuvants is that they induce cellular in addition to humoral immunity and offer excellent safety, tolerability, ease of manufacture and formulation. Thus, adjuvants based on inulin have enormous potential for use in vaccines against both pathogens and cancer.