The work of our laboratory has focused on the study of human memory B cells. Using an in vitro approach we dissected the triggering requirements of B cells and unveiled a distinct role for TLRs in the activation of naive versus memory B cells. Using an ex vivo approach we analyzed the dynamics of memory B cells and ASCs and the kinetics of serum antibodies during secondary immune responses and in steady state conditions and used these quantitative data to build up a model of serological memory. According to this model memory B cells behave as ;stem cells' capable of generating plasma cells and antibodies in an antigen-dependent as well as in an antigen-independent fashion. Finally we developed an efficient method to interrogate human memory B cells and to isolate human monoclonal antibodies. This method can be exploited for the production of neutralizing antibodies for serotherapy and for "analytic vaccinology".