Effect of 3D scaffold and dynamic culture condition on the global gene expression profile of mouse embryonic stem cells

Biomaterials. 2006 Dec;27(36):5978-89. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2006.05.053. Epub 2006 Jul 7.


We have previously demonstrated that mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiated on three-dimensional (3D), highly porous, tantalum-based scaffolds (Cytomatrixtrade mark) have significantly higher hematopoietic differentiation efficiency than those cultured under conventional two-dimensional (2D) tissue culture conditions. In addition, ES cell-seeded scaffolds cultured inside spinner bioreactors showed further enhancement in hematopoiesis compared to static conditions. In the present study, we evaluated how these various biomaterial-based culture conditions, e.g. 2D vs. 3D scaffolds and static vs. dynamic, influence the global gene expression profile of differentiated ES cells. We report that compared to 2D tissue culture plates, cells differentiated on porous, Cytomatrixtrade mark scaffolds possess significantly higher expression levels of extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes, as well as genes that regulate cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. In addition, these differences in gene expression were more pronounced in 3D dynamic culture compared to 3D static culture. We report specific genes that are either uniquely expressed under each condition or are quantitatively regulated, i.e. over expressed or inhibited by a specific culture environment. We conclude that that biomaterial-based 3D cultures, especially under dynamic conditions, might favor efficient hematopoietic differentiation of ES cells by stimulating increased expression of specific ECM proteins, growth factors and cell adhesion related genes while significantly down-regulating genes that act to inhibit expression of these molecules.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biocompatible Materials / chemistry
  • Cell Culture Techniques / methods*
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Extracellular Matrix / physiology*
  • Gene Expression / physiology
  • Gene Expression Profiling*
  • Mice
  • Proteome / metabolism*
  • Stem Cells / cytology*
  • Stem Cells / metabolism*
  • Tantalum / chemistry
  • Tissue Engineering / methods*


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Proteome
  • Tantalum