Background and aim: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) has become the standard of care for low-risk preterm babies born in developing countries. However, the potential risk of nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within KMC units, particularly in tuberculosis-endemic areas, has not been explored. We report an infant (sentinel case) who was admitted to our paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with extensive pulmonary tuberculosis.
Methods and results: When interviewed, the mother reported no household contact with a tuberculosis source case, but mentioned that she shared a KMC room with someone who had symptoms suspicious of tuberculosis. We found molecular evidence that nosocomial transmission of M. tuberculosis occurred within the KMC unit and conducted a contact investigation of all infants exposed to this infectious source case during her stay in the KMC unit.
Conclusion: We present the findings of the contact investigation and discuss the implications of these findings for KMC units, particularly in tuberculosis-endemic areas.