Roentgen stereophotogrammetry allows one to localize the position of an object in space using roentgen rays. For orthopaedic purposes it was developed 35 years ago by Göran Selvik, and since that time many investigators have refined the radiostereometric calculations and evaluative software. Many uses and mathematical algorithms have been developed, and advancements in computer programs and digital radiography continue to expand its capabilities. Despite these advances, improvements in the technical accuracy and type of kinematic analyses possible have been relatively modest. However, radiostereometric analysis is now easier and less time consuming to use, with a resolution in clinical practice almost equal to what could only previously be obtained under ideal laboratory conditions. The ability to measure skeletal and implant movements with high resolution in vivo images was an important progressive step for the orthopaedic community. Radiostereometric analysis has helped develop new fields in clinical orthopaedic research and continues to improve advancements in orthopaedic health care.