B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) is the most prevalent leukaemia in Western countries and is characterized by the gradual accumulation in patients of small mature B cells. Since the vast majority of tumoral cells are quiescent, the accumulation mostly results from deficient apoptosis rather than from acute proliferation. Although the phenomenon is relevant in vivo, B-CLL cells die rapidly in vitro as a consequence of apoptosis, suggesting a lack of essential growth factors in the culture medium. Indeed, the rate of B-CLL cell death in vitro is modulated by different cytokines, some favouring the apoptotic process, others counteracting it. Two related members of the tumour necrosis factor family, BAFF (B-cell activating factor of the TNF family) and APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand), already known for their crucial role in normal B-cell survival, differentiation and apoptosis, were recently shown to be expressed by B-CLL cells. These molecules are able to protect the leukaemic cells against spontaneous and drug-induced apoptosis via autocrine and/or paracrine pathways. This review will focus on the role of BAFF and APRIL in the survival of tumoral cells. It will discuss the expression of these molecules by B-CLL cells, their regulation, transduction pathways and their effects on leukaemic cells. The design of reagents able to counteract the effects of these molecules seems to be a new promising therapeutic approach for B-CLL and is already currently developed in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.