Members of the FXYD protein family are small membrane proteins which are characterized by an FXYD motif, two conserved glycines and a serine residue. FXYD proteins show a tissue-specific distribution. Recent evidence suggests that 6 out of 7 FXYD proteins, FXYD1 (phospholemman), FXYD2 (gamma subunit of Na,K-ATPase), FXYD3 (Mat-8), FXYD4 (CHIF), FXYD5 (Ric) and FXYD7 associate with Na,K-ATPase and modulate its transport properties e.g. its Na+ and/or its K+ affinity in a distinct way. These results highlight the complex regulation of Na+ and K+ transport which is necessary to ensure proper tissue functions such as renal Na+-reabsorption, muscle contractility and neuronal excitability. Moreover, mutation of a conserved glycine residue into an arginine residue in FXYD2 has been linked to cases of human hypomagnesemia indicating that dysregulation of Na,K-ATPase by FXYD proteins may be implicated in pathophysiological states. A better characterization of this novel regulatory mechanism of Na,K-ATPase may help to better understand its role in physiological and pathophysiological conditions.