Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCR4 interaction is critical for the trafficking of lymphocytes, homing and retention of hematopoietic stem cells within the bone marrow and is essential in fetal hematopoiesis. Binding of SDF-1 to CXCR4 activates a variety of intracellular signal transduction pathways and effector molecules that regulate cell survival, proliferation, chemotaxis, migration and adhesion. Recently, intensive research has demonstrated that SDF-1/CXCR4 interaction also regulates several key events in wide variety of cancers. Serum-depleted media in the presence of SDF-1 protected the breast cancer cells from apoptosis. CXCR4-low-expressing MCF-7 formed small tumor at inoculated site in SCID mice 8-9 weeks after inoculation while completely failed to metastasis into various organs. In contrast, CXCR4-high-expressing MDA-231 cells were most efficient in the formation of a large tumor and organ-metastasis within 3 weeks in SCID mice. This review briefly focuses on the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 interaction in tumor growth and metastasis of breast cancer cell both in vitro and in vivo.