Burrowing rate index, diurnal variations in heart rate and heart rate alterations associated with behavioral patterns were studied in Anodontites trapesialis from the Pardo River (PR) and the Galo Bravo Dam (GBD). In both populations the pattern immobile/buried was associated with the lowest (basal) values of heart rate, which increase significantly during burrowing remaining steady in its phases I and II and at the first 10 min of phase III. A decrease in the frequency of digging cycles was significantly correlated with the gradual decrease in heart rate during the phase III of burrowing. Nevertheless, mussels from PR burrow faster than those of GBD and possess higher values of basal heart rate which present a diurnal variation with the higher values occurring during the light phase. Yet, the basal heart rate in mussels from GBD remained stable over the course of 24 h. Also, the increase in heart rate associated with burrowing was higher in mussels from PR and compatible with the highest burrowing index previously detected. Since mussels possess a plastic phenotype it is probable that the cited functional differences are phenotypic adaptations, but we cannot exclude the possibility of these adaptations being genotypic in nature.