A unifying theoretical and algorithmic framework for least squares methods of estimation in diffusion tensor imaging

J Magn Reson. 2006 Sep;182(1):115-25. doi: 10.1016/j.jmr.2006.06.020. Epub 2006 Jul 7.


A unifying theoretical and algorithmic framework for diffusion tensor estimation is presented. Theoretical connections among the least squares (LS) methods, (linear least squares (LLS), weighted linear least squares (WLLS), nonlinear least squares (NLS) and their constrained counterparts), are established through their respective objective functions, and higher order derivatives of these objective functions, i.e., Hessian matrices. These theoretical connections provide new insights in designing efficient algorithms for NLS and constrained NLS (CNLS) estimation. Here, we propose novel algorithms of full Newton-type for the NLS and CNLS estimations, which are evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and compared with the commonly used Levenberg-Marquardt method. The proposed methods have a lower percent of relative error in estimating the trace and lower reduced chi2 value than those of the Levenberg-Marquardt method. These results also demonstrate that the accuracy of an estimate, particularly in a nonlinear estimation problem, is greatly affected by the Hessian matrix. In other words, the accuracy of a nonlinear estimation is algorithm-dependent. Further, this study shows that the noise variance in diffusion weighted signals is orientation dependent when signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low (<or=5). A new experimental design is, therefore, proposed to properly account for the directional dependence in diffusion weighted signal variance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms*
  • Brain Mapping / methods*
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Computer Simulation
  • Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Humans
  • Least-Squares Analysis*
  • Models, Theoretical