Current staging of hepatocellular carcinoma: imaging implications

Cancer Imaging. 2006 Jul 4;6(1):83-94. doi: 10.1102/1470-7330.2006.0014.


The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma has been rising in the USA in the past two decades. Hepatocellular carcinoma primarily affects older people and reaches its highest prevalence among those aged between 50 and 70 years. Chronic infection by the hepatitis B virus is the most common cause of this disease. Since hepatocellular carcinoma is an indolent tumor, it has a low life expectancy. In patients with suspected hepatocellular carcinoma, CT, MRI, and ultrasound techniques are useful for formulating the diagnosis based on vascularity and specific enhancement features. In this paper we will discuss the multimodal approach for diagnosis and surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma. We will also furnish the latest staging and treatment, epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathology and laboratory findings in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnostic imaging
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Liver Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • Liver Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Ultrasonography