The United States Public Health Service acknowledges in the 2000 Clinical Practice Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence that certain special populations have unique needs and considerations in regard to smoking cessation interventions. In a review of the current smoking cessation literature, the following special populations were identified: women; older adults; gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender smokers; smokers with psychiatric diagnoses; smokers addicted to illicit drugs, alcohol, or both; American Indians and Alaska Natives; African Americans; Hispanics; and Asian Americans. Existing smoking cessation research pertaining to these special populations was assessed, and an agenda for future research is proposed in this presentation. The available smoking cessation randomized clinical trials for efficacy and other research relevant to these groups is insufficient. Recent progress has been made in research in the areas of smoking cessation and women; smokers with psychiatric diagnoses; smokers addicted to illicit drugs, alcohol, or both; and African Americans. There is, however, a paucity of research evaluating smoking cessation interventions and older adults; gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender smokers; American Indians and Alaska Natives; Hispanics; and Asian Americans. Further research relevant to the smoking cessation needs of these special populations can enable nurses and other healthcare providers to administer culturally adequate and efficacious smoking cessation interventions to these groups.