Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize distinct microbial components and induce innate immune responses. TLR5 is triggered by bacterial flagellin. Here we generated Tlr5-/- mice and assessed TLR5 function in vivo. Unlike other TLRs, TLR5 was not expressed on conventional dendritic cells or macrophages. In contrast, TLR5 was expressed mainly on intestinal CD11c+ lamina propria cells (LPCs). CD11c+ LPCs detected pathogenic bacteria and secreted proinflammatory cytokines in a TLR5-dependent way. However, CD11c+ LPCs do not express TLR4 and did not secrete proinflammatory cytokines after exposure to a commensal bacterium. Notably, transport of pathogenic Salmonella typhimurium from the intestinal tract to mesenteric lymph nodes was impaired in Tlr5-/- mice. These data suggest that CD11c+ LPCs, via TLR5, detect and are used by pathogenic bacteria in the intestinal lumen.