Developmental Expression Patterns of Arabidopsis XTH Genes Reported by Transgenes and Genevestigator

Plant Mol Biol. 2006 Jun;61(3):451-67. doi: 10.1007/s11103-006-0021-z.


The plant cell wall is the structural basis of cellular form and thus forms a foundation on which morphogenesis builds organs and tissues. Enzymes capable of modifying major wall components are prominent candidates for regulating wall form and function. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases (XTHs) are predicted to participate in xyloglucan integration and/or restructuring. XTHs are encoded by large gene families in plants; the Arabidopsis genome encodes 33 XTHs. To gain insight into the potential physiological relevance of the distinct members of this family, GUS reporter fusion genes were constructed, and plants expressing these transgenes were characterized to reveal spatial and temporal patterns of expression. In addition, Genevestigator sources were mined for comprehensive and comparative XTH expression regulation analysis. These data reveal that the Arabidopsis XTHs are likely expressed in every developmental stage from seed germination through flowering. All organs show XTH::GUS expression and most, if not all, are found to express multiple XTH::GUS genes. These data suggest that XTHs may contribute to morphogenesis at every developmental stage and in every plant organ. Different XTHs have remarkably diverse and distinct expression patterns indicating that paralogous genes have evolved differential expression regulation perhaps contributing to the maintenance of the large gene family. Extensive overlap in XTH expression patterns is evident; thus, XTHs may act combinatorially in determining wall properties of specific tissues or organs. Knowledge of gene-specific expression among family members yields evidence of where and when gene products may function and provides insights to guide rational approaches to investigate function through reverse genetics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / enzymology*
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / physiology
  • Computational Biology / methods
  • Flowers / anatomy & histology
  • Flowers / enzymology
  • Flowers / growth & development
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Genes, Reporter
  • Glucuronidase / analysis
  • Glycosyltransferases / genetics
  • Glycosyltransferases / metabolism*
  • Glycosyltransferases / physiology
  • Multigene Family
  • Plant Roots / anatomy & histology
  • Plant Roots / enzymology
  • Plant Roots / growth & development
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / analysis
  • Seedlings / anatomy & histology
  • Seedlings / enzymology
  • Seedlings / growth & development
  • Seeds / anatomy & histology
  • Seeds / enzymology
  • Seeds / growth & development
  • Transgenes


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Glycosyltransferases
  • xyloglucan - xyloglucosyltransferase
  • Glucuronidase