Background & aims: De novo hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatitis after chemotherapy results in high morbidity and mortality. We evaluate the clinical course of de novo HBV-related hepatitis after chemotherapy.
Methods: Two hundred forty-four consecutive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative lymphoma patients treated with chemotherapy were followed up for a median of 12.4 (range, 0.1-65.0) months. Serially collected serum samples were analyzed for hepatitis, serum HBV DNA, and HBsAg seroreversion.
Results: Eight of the 244 patients (3.3%) developed de novo HBV-related hepatitis. A 100-fold increase in serum HBV DNA preceded de novo HBV-related hepatitis by a median of 18.5 (range, 12-28) weeks. All 8 patients had normal serum alanine aminotransaminase level when the 100-fold increase in serum HBV DNA occurred. Patients with de novo HBV-related hepatitis were more likely to have occult HBV infection before chemotherapy. Direct sequencing results showed that these 8 patients had de novo HBV-related hepatitis from reactivation of occult HBV infection. Three of the 8 patients with de novo HBV-related hepatitis compared with 6 of the 236 patients without de novo HBV-related hepatitis developed fulminant hepatic failure (37.5% vs 2.5%, respectively, P < .001). On multivariate Cox analysis, de novo HBV-related hepatitis was independently associated with a higher risk of fulminant hepatic failure (relative risk, 29.854; 95% confidence interval: 4.844-183.980; P < .001).
Conclusions: Close surveillance for a 100-fold increase in HBV DNA is recommended for HBsAg-negative patients treated with chemotherapy so that early commencement of antiviral therapy can be initiated before the occurrence of de novo HBV-related hepatitis.