Introduction: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CCMV) infection is a common neonatal infection affecting 1% of all live births, 10% of which are symptomatic. Many of these infants have long-term sequelae. The objective is to document the clinical presentation of SCCMV infection in neonates, the frequency of sequelae and severity of adverse neurologic outcomes and risk factors.
Methods: A review and analysis of all symptomatic infants diagnosed with SCCMV infection are given. SCCMV was defined as a diagnosis of CCMV infection in the first three weeks of life in the presence of any clinical manifestations. Outcome data from 2 years of age and later are analyzed.
Results: There were 104 patients identified as having SCCMV infection and of these 42 cases had definite infection. The common findings at presentation were hepatosplenomegaly 19/42 (45%), thrombocytopenia 21/42 (50%), elevated transaminases 21/42(50%), abnormal cranial US scan 24/41(56%), abnormal head CT scan 29/41(71%) and abnormal brain MRI 17/19(89%). The risk factors for an adverse outcome including death or deafness or blindness or moderate to severe neurological deficits included an abnormal cranial US scan (OR 8.5), abnormal head CT scan (OR 21) and abnormal brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER) (OR 8.7).
Conclusions: There was only three (7%) patients without any deficits and severely affected infants have been identified with a diverse clinical presentation, reinforcing the importance of CMV as a major public health problem.