Paternal bias in parental origin of HRAS mutations in Costello syndrome

Hum Mutat. 2006 Aug;27(8):736-41. doi: 10.1002/humu.20381.


Costello syndrome (CS) is a rare congenital condition caused by heterozygous de novo missense mutations affecting the codon for glycine 12 or 13 of the HRAS gene. We have identified 39 CS patients harboring the p.Gly12Ser mutation (NM_005343.2:c.34 G > A), two patients with c.35G > C mutations resulting in p.Gly12Ala substitutions, and one patient carrying the p.Gly13Cys substitution (c.37G > A). We analyzed the region flanking the mutated sites in 42 probands and 59 parents, and used four polymorphic markers to trace the parental origin of the germline mutations: one highly polymorphic hexanucleotide (GGGCCT) repeat region, defining three alleles with different numbers of repeat units (two, three, or four), and three SNPs. One of the SNPs, rs12628 (c.81T > C), was found in strong linkage disequilibrium with the hexanucleotide repeat region. Out of a total of 24 probands with polymorphic markers, 16 informative families were tested and the paternal origin of the germline mutation was found in 14 CS probands; a distribution that is neither consistent with an equal likelihood of mutations arising in either parent (P = 0.0018), nor with exclusive paternal origin.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics*
  • Adult
  • Alleles
  • Base Sequence
  • Female
  • Germ-Line Mutation*
  • Humans
  • Inheritance Patterns*
  • Intellectual Disability / genetics*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Paternal Age
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / genetics*
  • Syndrome


  • HRAS protein, human
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)