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. 2006;32(3):103-9.
doi: 10.1563/760.1.

Effect of Vitamin D Pretreatment of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Ectopic Bone Formation

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Effect of Vitamin D Pretreatment of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Ectopic Bone Formation

I J De Kok et al. J Oral Implantol. .

Abstract

Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used in contemporary strategies for tissue engineering. The MSC is able to form bone following implantation as undifferentiated cells adherent to hydroxyapatite (HA)/tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds. Previous investigators have demonstrated that human MSCs (hMSCs) can be differentiated to osteoblasts in vitro by the inclusion of vitamin D and ascorbic acid. The aim of this study was to compare the osteogenic potential of predifferentiated and undifferentiated bone marrow-derived, culture-expanded hMSCs adherent to synthetic HA/TCP (60%/40%) following subcutaneous engraftment in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. During the final 3 days of culture, cells were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% fetal calf serum and antibiotics or media containing 25-mM calcium supplementation with vitamin D and ascorbic acid. Four weeks following implantation in SCID mice, scoring analysis of bone formation within the cubes revealed the absence of bone formation in unloaded cubes. Bone formation compared by a qualitative bone index was 7.23% for undifferentiated cells compared to 5.20% for differentiated cells. Minimal resorption was observed at this early time point. In this ectopic model, predifferentiation using a combination of vitamin D and ascorbic acid failed to increase subsequent bone formation by implanted cells. Following implantation of hMSCs adherent to an osteoconductive scaffold, host factors may contribute dominant osteoinductive signals or impose inhibitory signals to control the fate of the implanted cell. Predifferentiation strategies require confirmation in vivo.

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