Neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with HIV infection under 3 years of age

Dev Med Child Neurol. 2006 Aug;48(8):677-82. doi: 10.1017/S0012162206001423.


Following the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy, children vertically infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) living in the developed world are surviving into adult life. This paper reviews the neurodevelopmental outcomes of 62 consecutively-presenting children with HIV-1 infection diagnosed before 3 years of age (32 males, 30 females; median age at presentation 6 mo). Neurological and developmental data are presented with immunological and virological responses to antiretroviral therapy. Fourteen children (22%) had abnormal neurological signs and 25 (40%) demonstrated significant developmental delay on standardized developmental assessments. Children presenting with more severe HIV-1 disease and immune compromise had significantly more abnormal neurological signs and developmental delays than children presenting with milder HIV-1 symptomatology. Immune function, control of HIV-1 viral replication, and growth parameters improved with antiretroviral therapy (median age at last follow-up 7 y 3 mo); however, abnormal neurological signs and significant gross motor difficulties persisted.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • AIDS Dementia Complex / drug therapy
  • AIDS Dementia Complex / prevention & control*
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Child Development
  • Child, Preschool
  • Developmental Disabilities / etiology*
  • Developmental Disabilities / prevention & control
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / immunology
  • HIV Infections / transmission
  • HIV-1 / drug effects*
  • HIV-1 / immunology
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Viral Load


  • Anti-HIV Agents