In the embryonic forebrain, pioneer axons establish a simple topography of dorsoventral and longitudinal tracts. The cues used by these axons during the initial formation of the axon scaffold remain largely unknown. We have investigated the axon guidance role of Neogenin, a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily that binds to the chemoattractive ligand Netrin-1, as well as to the chemorepulsive ligand repulsive guidance molecule (RGMa). Here, we show strong expression of Neogenin and both of its putative ligands in the developing Xenopus forebrain. Neogenin loss-of-function mutants revealed that this receptor was essential for axon guidance in an early forming dorsoventral brain pathway. Similar mutant phenotypes were also observed following loss of either RGMa or Netrin-1. Simultaneous partial knock downs of these molecules revealed dosage-sensitive interactions and confirmed that these receptors and ligands were acting in the same pathway. The results provide the first evidence that Neogenin acts as an axon guidance molecule in vivo and support a model whereby Neogenin-expressing axons respond to a combination of attractive and repulsive cues as they navigate their ventral trajectory.