DNA polymerase activities were scanned in a Pyrococcus furiosus cell extract to identify all of the DNA polymerases in this organism. Three main fractions containingDNA polymerizing activity were subjected to Western blot analyses, which revealed that the main activities in each fraction were derived from three previously identified DNA polymerases. PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), the sliding clamp of DNA polymerases, did not bind tightly to any of the three DNA polymerases. A primer usage preference was also shown for each purified DNA polymerase. Considering their biochemical properties, the roles of the three DNA polymerases during DNA replication in the cells are discussed.