Exercise increases skeletal muscle insulin action but the underlying mechanisms mediating this are equivocal. In mouse skeletal muscle, prior exercise enhances insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) signaling (Diabetes 2002;51:479-83), but it is unknown if this also occurs in humans. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed on 7 untrained males at rest and immediately after 60 minutes of cycling exercise at approximately 75% Vo2peak. Muscle biopsies were obtained at basal, immediately after exercise, and at 30 and 120 minutes of hyperinsulinemia. Insulin infusion increased (P < .05) insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation similarly in both the rest and exercise trials. Under resting conditions, insulin infusion resulted in a small, but non-statistically significant increase in IRS-2-associated phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI 3)-kinase activity over basal levels. Exercise per se decreased (P < .05) IRS-2-associated PI 3-kinase activity. After exercise, insulin-stimulated IRS-2-associated PI 3-kinase activity tended to increase at 30 minutes and further increased (P < .05) at 120 minutes when compared with the resting trial. Insulin increased (P < .05) Akt Ser473 and GSK-3alpha/beta Ser21/Ser9 phosphorylation in both trials, with the response tending to be higher in the exercise trial. In conclusion, in the immediate period after an acute bout of exercise, insulin-stimulated IRS-2 signaling is enhanced in human skeletal muscle.