Niacin-bound chromium enhances myocardial protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 Aug;291(2):H820-6. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00134.2006.


A novel niacin-bound, chromium-based energy formula (EF; InterHealth Nutraceuticals, Benicia, CA) has been developed in conjunction with D-ribose, caffeine, ashwagandha extract (containing 5% withanolides), and selected amino acids. We have assessed the efficacy of oral administration of EF (40 mg x kg body wt(-1) x day(-1)) in male and female rats over a period of 90 consecutive days on the cardiovascular and pathophysiological functions in an isolated rat heart model. After 30, 60, and 90 days of treatment with EF, the hearts of male and female rats were subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion and were measured for myocardial ATP, creatine phosphate (CP), phosphorylated AMP kinase (p-AMPK), and heat shock proteins. Myocardial ATP and CP levels were increased in both male and female rats after EF treatment compared with the controls. Western blot analyses were performed to quantify the expression of stress-related proteins such as heat shock proteins (HSP-70, -32, and -25) and are found to be increased in both male and female rats after EF treatment. The p-AMPK level, which is a sensor for the energy state in various cell types, was also found to be increased after treatment with EF in both male and female rats. Aortic flow, maximum first derivative of developed pressure, left ventricular developed pressure, and infarct size were observed after ischemia-reperfusion and found to be significantly improved in EF-treated rats compared with control animals. Thus EF demonstrated long-term safety as well as exhibiting significant cardioprotective ability during ischemia and reperfusion injury by increased energy production, improved cardiac function, and reduced infarct size.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism
  • Adenylate Kinase / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cardiotonic Agents*
  • Chromium / pharmacology*
  • Coronary Circulation
  • Energy Metabolism / drug effects
  • Female
  • Heart Rate / physiology
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Male
  • Myocardial Reperfusion Injury / pathology
  • Myocardial Reperfusion Injury / prevention & control*
  • Myocardium / pathology*
  • Niacin / pharmacology*
  • Phosphocreatine / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Ventricular Function, Left / physiology
  • Vitamins / pharmacology*


  • Cardiotonic Agents
  • Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Vitamins
  • Phosphocreatine
  • Chromium
  • Niacin
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Adenylate Kinase