Purpose: To determine changes in cerebral perfusion parameters, based on CT perfusion imaging, in patients after unilateral transluminal angioplasty and stent placement.
Material and methods: 74 patients with symptomatic high - grade internal carotid artery stenosis (>70%) were studied with CT perfusion imaging before and - on average - 70 hours and 172 days after carotid stent placement. There were 50 patients with unilateral carotid artery stenosis and 24 with stenosis and accompanying contralateral internal carotid artery occlusion. CT examination was performed using a multidetector helical CT scanner (Light Speed Ultra Advantage, GE Healthcare, USA). Maps showing the absolute values of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) were generated.
Results: In a group with unilateral carotid artery stenosis perfusion deficits were present in 84% of patients, ipsilaterally to stenosis. MTT elongation was noted (6.2-6.8s) together with decreased values of CBF (40-46ml/100g/min) and slightly increased CBV (3.2ml/100g). In this group, 3 days after stenting, 30% of patients had perfusion deficits, and after 6 months only 6%. In a group with carotid artery stenosis and contralateral artery occlusion severe perfusion deficits were noted in both hemispheres and they were present in 100% of patients. 6 months after stenting hypoperfusion was observed only in 17% of patients.
Conclusions: Brain perfusion deficits, observed in a majority of patients with carotid artery stenosis tend to improve considerably after carotid artery stenting, in long - term follow up.