The majority of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. An imbalance in ROS production alters the intracellular redox homeostasis, triggers DNA damage, and contributes to cancer development and progression. This study identified a novel protein, reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1), which is localized in the mitochondria. Romo1 was found to increase the level of ROS in the cells. Increased Romo1 expression was observed in various cancer cell lines. This suggests that the increased Romo1 expression during cancer progression may cause persistent oxidative stress to tumor cells, which can increase their malignancy.