Fractalkine (FKN) evokes nociceptive behavior in nai ve rats, whereas minocycline attenuates pain acutely after neuronal injury. We show that, in nai ve rats, FKN causes hyperresponsiveness of lumbar wide dynamic range neurons to brush, pressure and pinch applied to the hindpaw. One day after spinal nerve ligation (SNL), minocycline attenuates after-discharge and responses to brush and pressure. In contrast, minocycline does not alter evoked neuronal responses 10 days after SNL or sciatic constriction, but increases spontaneous discharge. We speculate that microglia rapidly alter sensory neuronal activity in nai ve and neuropathic rats acutely, but not chronically, after injury.