Differential effects of haloperidol, clozapine and olanzapine on learning and memory functions in mice

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Dec 30;30(8):1486-95. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2006.06.001. Epub 2006 Jul 13.


Many schizophrenic patients exhibit impairments in neurocognitive functions. Typical antipsychotic drugs such as haloperidol, have limited or even detrimental influence on cognitive functions. In contrast, atypical antipsychotic drugs, such as clozapine and olanzapine, may improve memory function in schizophrenics. However, only a few studies have been conducted to directly compare the effects of olanzapine, clozapine and haloperidol on memory functions in animal models. Thus, their effects on this issue were investigated in the present studies by using one-way step-through passive avoidance task and Morris water maze as models of learning and memory. The results showed that olanzapine did not affect acquisition, consolidation or retrieval process in step-through test. Moreover, it improved spatial learning function in mice in Morris water maze task. Clozapine and haloperidol appeared to impair acquisition process and consolidation process, respectively, in step-through test. Both drugs impaired spatial learning function in mice in Morris water maze task. The results suggested a positive implication for the clinical medication of olanzapine in schizophrenic treatment.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antipsychotic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Avoidance Learning / drug effects
  • Avoidance Learning / physiology*
  • Benzodiazepines / pharmacology
  • Clozapine / pharmacology*
  • Haloperidol / pharmacology*
  • Learning / drug effects
  • Learning / physiology*
  • Maze Learning / drug effects
  • Maze Learning / physiology
  • Memory / drug effects
  • Memory / physiology*
  • Mice
  • Models, Animal
  • Motor Activity / drug effects
  • Motor Activity / physiology*
  • Olanzapine
  • Swimming / physiology


  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Clozapine
  • Haloperidol
  • Olanzapine