Vitamin K (K) is an essential factor for the posttranslational modification of blood coagulation factors as well as proteins in the bone matrix (Gla proteins). It is known that K is not only distributed in the liver and bones but also abundantly distributed in the brain, kidney, and gonadal tissues. However, the role of K in these tissues is not well clarified. In this study, we used DNA microarray and identified the genes whose expression was affected in the testis under the K-deficient (K-def) state. The expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and steroid hormones was decreased in the K-def group. The mRNA levels of Cyp11a - a rate-limiting enzyme in testosterone synthesis - positively correlated with the menaquinone-4 (MK-4) concentration in the testis. Moreover, as compared to the control (Cont) and K-supplemented (K-sup) groups, the K-def group had decreased testosterone concentrations in the plasma and testis. These results suggested that K is involved in steroid production in the testis through the regulation of Cyp11a.