Objective: To assess the role of homocysteine as a risk factor for mortality in diabetic subjects.
Methods: Homocysteine, vitamin B(12), and folate concentrations were measured in stored sera of 396 diabetic Pima Indians aged > or = 40 years when examined between 1982 and 1985. Vital status was assessed through 2001.
Results and conclusions: Over a median follow-up of 15.7 years, there were 221 deaths-76 were due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), 36 to diabetes/nephropathy and 34 to infections. Homocysteine was positively associated with mortality from all causes (hazard rate ratio (HRR) for highest versus lowest tertile of homocysteine = 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-2.46), from diabetes/nephropathy (HRR = 2.39, 95% CI 0.94-6.11) and from infectious diseases (HRR = 3.39, 95% CI 1.19-9.70), but not from CVD (HRR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.62-2.17) after adjustment for age, sex and diabetes duration. Homocysteine correlated with serum creatinine (r = 0.50), and the relationships with mortality rates were not significant after adjustment for creatinine. Vitamin B(12) was positively associated with all-cause mortality (HRR for 100 pg/mL difference adjusted for age, sex and diabetes duration = 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22) and death from diabetes/nephropathy (HRR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.10-1.46). The association between homocysteine and mortality in type 2 diabetes is not causal, but is confounded by renal disease in Pima Indians.
(c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.