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. 2006 Jun;2(6):e67.
doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0020067.

Shield as Signal: Lipopolysaccharides and the Evolution of Immunity to Gram-Negative Bacteria

Free PMC article

Shield as Signal: Lipopolysaccharides and the Evolution of Immunity to Gram-Negative Bacteria

Robert S Munford et al. PLoS Pathog. .
Free PMC article

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Figure 1
Figure 1. Lipid A Structure, Bacterial Habitat, and Host Recognition
Approximate relationship between resistance to CAMPs, recognition by MD-2–TLR4, and lipid A acyl chain composition for Gram-negative aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria living in different habitats. The number, length, and saturation of the acyl chains may all influence recognition by TLR4. In mucosal lipid A, the acyl chains are saturated and usually have 12 or 14 carbons.
Figure 2
Figure 2. AOAH Phylogenetic Tree
Topological algorithm derived using DisplayFam [69] analysis of available sequences. Amino acid similarity/identity to the full-length human sequence is shown (includes both subunits and the pro-peptide). AOAH-like sequences have not been found in fish or insects. The asterisk indicates that AOAH-like enzymatic activity has been demonstrated in one or more cell types. See Table S2 for accession numbers.

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