Classification, diagnosis, and interventional radiologic management of vascular malformations

Orthop Clin North Am. 2006 Jul;37(3):435-74, vii-viii. doi: 10.1016/j.ocl.2006.04.005.


Vascular anomalies are comprised of either hemangiomas or vascular malformations.Low-flow vascular malformations can be divided into capillary, venous, and lymphatic types and are usually present at birth, undergo pari passu growth, and produce symptoms related to mass effect or stasis. High-flow malformations are comprised pre-dominantly of arteriovenous malformations that follow a more aggressive clinical course of hyperemia, adjacent mass effect, steal phenomenon, tissue destruction, and ultimately high output failure. Ultrasound, CT, nuclear medicine, angiography, and particularly MRI have greatly enhanced diagnostic accuracy and provide detailed information for percutaneous and surgical treatment planning and an objective means of following therapeutic efficacy. Interventional radiologic percutaneous sclerotherapy for low-flow lesions and embolosclerotherapy for high-flow lesions with or without adjunctive surgical intervention have become the mainstay of therapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use
  • Arteriovenous Malformations / classification
  • Arteriovenous Malformations / diagnosis*
  • Arteriovenous Malformations / diagnostic imaging
  • Bleomycin / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Lymphatic Abnormalities / classification
  • Lymphatic Abnormalities / diagnosis*
  • Lymphatic Abnormalities / diagnostic imaging
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Oleic Acids / therapeutic use
  • Radiography, Interventional*
  • Sclerosing Solutions / therapeutic use
  • Sclerotherapy
  • Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate / therapeutic use


  • Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
  • Oleic Acids
  • Sclerosing Solutions
  • Bleomycin
  • Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate
  • ethanolamine oleate