We describe a highly polymorphic microsatellite repeat sequence, KLK1 AC, which is located 3' to the human glandular kallikrein gene (KLK1) at 19q13.3-13.4. A multiplex PCR was developed to simultaneously genotype the KLK1 AC repeat length polymorphism and a similar repeat at the adjacent APOC2 locus at 19q13.2. Genotypes from these two loci in the 40 large kindred pedigrees from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain were used in conjunction with the background genetic map to establish a multipoint linkage map. The KLK1 locus was also localized physically using somatic cell hybrid DNA templates for polymerase chain reaction analysis. Both genetic and physical mapping studies are consistent with the assignment cen-APOC2-KLK1-D19522-qter. The linkage map places KLK1 approximately 10 cM distal to APOC2. These markers therefore flank the myotonic dystrophy gene and may be useful for diagnosis.