Several cellular pathways have been identified which affect the efficiency of thiamine biosynthesis in Salmonella enterica. Mutants defective in iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster metabolism are less efficient at synthesis of the pyrimidine moiety of thiamine. These mutants are compromised for the conversion of aminoimidazole ribotide (AIR) to 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine phosphate (HMP-P), not the synthesis of AIR. The gene product ThiC contains potential ligands for an Fe-S cluster that are required for function in vivo. The conversion of AIR to HMP-P is sensitive to oxidative stress, and variants of ThiC have been identified that have increased sensitivity to oxidative growth conditions. The data are consistent with ThiC or an as-yet-unidentified protein involved in HMP-P synthesis containing an Fe-S cluster required for its physiological function.