Posttranslational modification is an efficient mechanism for controlling the activity of structural proteins, gene expression regulators, and enzymes in response to rapidly changing physiological conditions. Here we report in vitro and in vivo evidence that the acuABC operon of the gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis encodes a protein acetyltransferase (AcuA) and a protein deacetylase (AcuC), which may control the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase (AMP-forming, AcsA) in this bacterium. Results from in vitro experiments using purified proteins show that AcsA is a substrate for the acetyl-CoA-dependent AcuA acetyltransferase. Mass spectrometry analysis of a tryptic digest of acetylated AcsA (AcsA(Ac)) identified residue Lys549 as the sole modification site in the protein. Unlike sirtuins, the AcuC protein did not require NAD(+) as cosubstrate to deacetylate AcsA(Ac). The function of the putative AcuB protein remains unknown.