The global eradication of poliomyelitis has reached a critical stage. The disease remains endemic in only four countries (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan), which have reported most of the cases in 2006. India is the most populous of the polio-endemic countries. Beginning in 2005, the Government of India (GOI) and its partners intensified eradication efforts by implementing additional immunization and surveillance strategies, including introduction of monovalent oral poliovirus vaccine types 1 and 3 (mOPV1 and mOPV3, respectively). The number of reported cases decreased from 134 in 2004 to 66 in 2005. However, cases have resurged in 2006; as of June 25, 2006, a total of 60 cases had been reported. Although intense local transmission continues in certain areas (i.e., western Uttar Pradesh [UP]), interruption of wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission in India is feasible with continued effective interventions. This report summarizes progress toward polio eradication in India from January 2005 through June 2006.